There are seven main subspecialties in orthopaedic surgery; Hip, Knee, Foot and Ankle, Spine, Shoulder and Elbow, Hand and Wrist and Paediatrics. All aim to improve mobility and to reduce pain.
Knee orthopaedic surgery as a sub speciality has been developed to replace the bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve pain and restore mobility. The most common reason for a knee replacement or knee arthroplasty is the degenerative disease of osteoarthritis.
The other major causes for knee arthroplasty result from a meniscus tear, cartilage defect or ligament tear. Knee replacement surgery can be either partial or total replacement and usually consists of the replacement of the diseased or damaged part of the knee joint surface with either a metal or plaster implant. These are shaped to allow the knee to keep being able to rotate and depending on the operation and severity of the problem.
If you think about the wear and tear on a knee you can see why orthopaedic surgeons are constantly using scientific research to aid their operations to lessen wear, improve the loosening of joint components and to improve the range of motion often lost through damage or disease.